These are a few charts that show cabochon shapes, stone hardness and a step by step cutting procedure for cutting cabochon gemstones, agates and jaspers.
For starters here is the Mohs scale. This chart will help to determine what type of stone you are working with. Softer stones will be cut much faster than harder stones. 1 being the softest and 10 being the hardest.
Below are my illustrated steps for cutting gemstones. If you what like to check out some how to books on lapidary work here is a link. LAPIDARY BOOKS
Here are five steps to cutting a cabochon shaped stone.
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